Tuhin Bhatt
Request a Call Back

Enter your contact details and one of our friendly team member will be in touch soon!.

    Mobile App Development Mobile App Development

    How to Build a Decentralized Application (dApp) in 10 Simple Steps

    Tuhin Bhatt's image.
    Co-founder of LAD

      Published on October 18, 2023

      21 min read

    Imagine creating a digital game-changer with the power of blockchain technology.

    Building a dApp is like sculpting the future, making processes smarter, and bringing your dreams to life – securely and without intermediaries.

    In this guide, you’ll learn the ins and outs of creating dApps, from concept to deployment.

    Whether you’re an aspiring developer or a seasoned pro, join us to explore the path to building your very own dApp.

    Without further ado, let’s dig in!

    What Is a decentralised Application?

    A decentralised application, often abbreviated as a dApp, is a software application that operates on a decentralised network of computers.

    Unlike traditional applications that rely on a centralised server or authority, dApps leverage blockchain technology to function in a distributed and decentralised manner.

    At the core of a dApp is a smart contract, which is a self-executing agreement with the terms of the contract directly written into code.

    Smart contracts facilitate and automate transactions without the need for intermediaries.

    They are an integral part of decentralised applications, providing the logic and rules that govern how the application works.

    Take your dApp idea to the next level with LAD’s dApp development services.

    Secure a FREE 30-minute consultation with our seasoned experts today!

    Components of a dApp

    To better understand how a dApp functions, it’s essential to grasp its key components:

    Blockchain: It records transactions across a network of computers, ensuring transparency and security.

    Each block in the chain contains a set of transactions, and once added, it cannot be altered.

    This immutable nature makes blockchain the perfect technology for decentralised applications, as it provides a tamper-proof record of all activities.

    Smart Contracts: They act as the ‘brains’ of a dApp, executing predefined actions when certain conditions are met.

    For instance, in a decentralised voting system, a smart contract could automatically tally votes and declare the winner without the need for human intervention.

    Preparing for dApp Development

    Before diving into the development of a decentralised application, it’s crucial to have a clear understanding of the foundational technologies and concepts.

    Two key elements to comprehend are:

    What Exactly Is a Blockchain?

    A blockchain is a distributed ledger that records transactions across a network of computers.

    It operates on a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, meaning that every participant in the network has a copy of the entire blockchain.

    This decentralization and transparency are what make blockchains so powerful.

    One of the defining characteristics of a blockchain is its immutability.

    Once a transaction is added to a block, it cannot be altered or deleted.

    This ensures the integrity of the ledger and eliminates the need for trust in a centralised authority.

    What Is a Smart Contract?

    Smart contracts are self-executing agreements that automatically execute and enforce the terms of a contract when predefined conditions are met.

    These contracts are written in code and exist on the blockchain.

    Smart contracts can manage a wide range of applications, from financial services to supply chain management and beyond.

    The automation of smart contracts eliminates the need for intermediaries, streamlining processes and reducing the potential for errors or fraud.

    For example, in a decentralised crowdfunding dApp, a smart contract could automatically release funds to a project when it reaches its funding goal, without requiring the involvement of a centralised platform.

    10 Steps to Build a decentralised App (dApp)

    Step #1. Defining Clear Objectives

    With a solid understanding of the problem you aim to solve and the market in which you’ll operate, you can now define clear objectives for your dApp.

    These objectives will serve as your guiding principles throughout the development process:

    • Specific Goals: Set specific, measurable, and attainable goals. For example, if your dApp is designed for financial transactions, a clear objective could be to process a certain number of transactions per day.
    • User Experience: Prioritize user experience objectives, such as creating an intuitive interface and ensuring a seamless user journey. Users should find your Dapp easy to use and navigate.
    • Security and Compliance: Define objectives related to security and compliance. Ensuring the security of user data and compliance with relevant regulations should be a top priority.
    • Scalability: If your dApp has the potential to grow, set objectives for scalability. Your dApp should be able to handle increased user loads without compromising performance.
    • Monetization: Consider your revenue model. Whether it’s through transaction fees, subscriptions, or other means, define your objectives for generating income.

    Step #2. Assembling a Development Team for Your dApp

    Developing a decentralised application (dApp) is not a solitary endeavor.

    It takes a skilled and cohesive development team to bring your dApp vision to life.

    In this section, we will delve into the intricacies of assembling a development team, outlining the key roles and responsibilities each member should shoulder and the essential skills required to ensure the success of your dApp project.

    Project Manager

    The project manager is the captain of the ship. They are responsible for setting project goals, creating a timeline, allocating tasks, and ensuring that the project stays on track and within budget.

    They also act as a liaison between the development team and stakeholders, communicating progress and addressing any issues that may arise.

    Blockchain Developer

    The blockchain developer is the backbone of your decentralised application development project.

    They are tasked with developing and deploying the smart contracts that underpin your dApp.

    This includes coding the logic for your dApp’s functionalities, securing the blockchain, and handling any issues related to blockchain technology.

    Frontend Developer

    The frontend developer focuses on the user interface (UI) and user experience (UX) of your dApp.

    They are responsible for creating an engaging, intuitive, and visually appealing interface that enables users to interact seamlessly with the dApp.

    This includes designing the layout, implementing navigation, and ensuring responsive design for various devices.

    Backend Developer

    The backend developer is the architect behind the scenes, responsible for developing the server, database, and application logic that support your dApp’s functionality.

    This includes data management, ensuring the security and scalability of the backend, and integrating it with the blockchain.

    UI/UX Designer

    The UI/UX designer collaborates closely with the frontend developer to create a visually appealing and user-friendly interface.

    They design the layout, graphics, and overall look and feel of the application, ensuring that it aligns with user expectations and usability principles.

    Quality Assurance (QA) Tester

    The QA tester is responsible for thorough testing of the dApp to identify and report any bugs, glitches, or usability issues.

    They perform extensive testing to ensure the dApp is free from errors and works as intended. They also work with the development team to resolve any issues.

    Security Specialist

    Security is paramount in dApp development. The security specialist focuses on identifying and mitigating vulnerabilities, implementing encryption, and ensuring the overall security of the dApp.

    They continuously monitor for potential threats and ensure compliance with security best practices.

    Skills to look out for:

    • Blockchain Development Skills
    • Frontend Development
    • Backend Development
    • UI/UX Design
    • QA Testing
    • Security Specialist Skills

    Step #3. Choose Languages You Want to Use for Smart Contract Development

    Developing smart contracts involves writing code in specific programming languages, with Solidity being the most popular.

    Let’s explore some of the languages used for smart contract development:


    Solidity is the most widely used language for Ethereum-based smart contracts.

    It is a statically-typed, high-level language designed specifically for creating Ethereum smart contracts.

    Solidity code is compiled into bytecode that runs on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).

    Solidity is favored for its simplicity and compatibility with the Ethereum blockchain, making it an excellent choice for Ethereum dApp development.


    Vyper is another language developed for Ethereum smart contracts.

    It is intentionally designed to be more readable and secure than Solidity, with a Python-like syntax.

    Vyper aims to enhance smart contract security by reducing the potential for complex, error-prone code.


    Serpent is an older language for Ethereum smart contracts. It is considered less user-friendly and less actively maintained than Solidity or Vyper.

    Although less common today, Serpent was used in early Ethereum projects.

    LLL (Low-Level Lisp-like Language)

    LLL is a low-level language for writing smart contracts on the Ethereum platform.

    It provides a high degree of control over the contract code but requires a deep understanding of Ethereum’s inner workings.

    LLL is used for highly specialised or low-level contract development.


    Bamboo is a language designed for the NEO blockchain.

    It is a statically-typed language that aims to be developer-friendly while ensuring contract security.

    Bamboo is used in NEO-based dApps, offering a streamlined development process.

    Each of these languages serves a specific blockchain platform or purpose, and the choice of language depends on the blockchain you are working with and your development preferences.

    Step #4. Setting Up Your Development Environment for Blockchain

    When embarking on the journey of building a decentralised application (dApp), one of the crucial initial steps is setting up your development environment.

    This process involves installing the necessary tools and configuring your blockchain development environment to ensure a smooth and efficient development process.

    To develop a dApp, you need a set of essential tools to facilitate blockchain and smart contract development.

    Let’s look at the core tools you’ll need:

    Tool Description
    Ethereum Client An Ethereum client is software that connects your development environment to the Ethereum blockchain. Geth (Go Ethereum) and Parity are popular Ethereum clients. You can install an Ethereum client to interact with the Ethereum network, test your smart contracts, and deploy your app.
    Integrated Development Environment (IDE) An IDE tailored for blockchain development simplifies the process. Tools like Truffle, Remix, and Embark provide a convenient environment for coding and deploying smart contracts. Truffle, in particular, is widely used and offers a suite of tools for blockchain development.
    Solidity Compiler If you’re developing on Ethereum, you need the Solidity compiler. Solidity is the programming language for creating Ethereum smart contracts. The compiler takes your Solidity code and turns it into bytecode that can be executed on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).
    Ganache Ganache is a development blockchain emulator. It allows you to create a local Ethereum blockchain for testing and development. With Ganache, you can simulate various blockchain scenarios and interactions without interacting with the live Ethereum network.
    Metamask Metamask is a browser extension that serves as a cryptocurrency wallet and a gateway to the Ethereum network. It allows you to manage your Ethereum accounts, send transactions, and interact with dApps directly from your web browser.

    Step #5. Writing and Deploying Smart Contracts

    Let’s start with a simple example to understand the basics of writing a smart contract.

    We’ll create a basic “Hello World” smart contract in Solidity, the most commonly used language for Ethereum-based smart contracts.

    Install the Required Tools

    Before you begin, make sure you have Solidity installed.

    You can use an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) like Remix or Truffle to write your smart contracts.

    Create a New Contract

    In your chosen IDE, create a new Solidity file and define your contract. Here’s an example of a simple smart contract in Solidity:

    // SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
    pragma solidity ^0.8.0;
    contract HelloWorld {
    string public message = "Hello, World!";

    Compile the Contract

    Use your IDE’s built-in compiler or a command-line tool to compile your smart contract.

    This process generates bytecode that can be executed on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).

    Deploy the Smart Contract

    After compiling, you’ll need to deploy your contract to the Ethereum network or a testnet for testing.

    Use your IDE or a tool like Truffle to deploy your contract.

    Compiling and Deploying a Smart Contract

    Compiling and deploying a smart contract are essential steps in bringing your decentralised application to life.

    Here’s how you can accomplish these tasks:

    Compile the Smart Contract

    In Remix, simply navigate to the “Solidity” tab and select your contract.

    Click “Compile” to generate the bytecode and Application Binary Interface (ABI) of your contract.

    Choose a Deployment Network

    To deploy on a testnet, ensure you have test Ether (ETH) in your account.

    For mainnet deployment, you’ll need real Ether, so be extra cautious.

    Deploy the Smart Contract

    In Remix, switch to the “Deploy & Run Transactions” tab.

    Connect your wallet (e.g., Metamask) to the selected network.

    Deploy the contract by clicking the “Create” button.

    Confirm the transaction in your wallet.

    Verify Deployment

    After deployment, you’ll receive a transaction hash.

    You can verify the contract’s deployment on Etherscan by entering the contract’s address or transaction hash.

    Step #6. Developing the Frontend of Your Application

    The front-end is where the magic happens. It’s the user interface (UI) that users interact with, making it a critical component of any dApp.

    In this section, we will explore the art of designing the UI for dApps, touching upon user experience (UX) considerations and the tools and frameworks that empower UI development.

    Tools and Frameworks for dApp’s UI Development

    To bring your dApp’s UI to life, you’ll need the right tools and frameworks.

    Here are some of the most popular ones in the world of decentralised app development:

    • React

    React is a JavaScript library for building user interfaces.

    It’s widely used in dApp development due to its component-based architecture, which allows for efficient and reusable UI elements.

    • Angular

    Angular is a robust framework for building dynamic web applications.

    It provides a structured approach to frontend development and offers features like two-way data binding.

    • Vue.js

    Vue.js is a progressive JavaScript framework for building user interfaces.

    It’s known for its simplicity and ease of integration into projects, making it a popular choice for dApp developers.

    • Web3.js

    When working with Ethereum-based dApps, Web3.js is a JavaScript library that allows your frontend to interact with the Ethereum blockchain.

    It provides functions for sending transactions, reading data, and more.

    • Truffle

    Truffle is a development framework for Ethereum that includes tools for smart contract compilation, deployment, and testing.

    It simplifies the development process by providing a suite of tools for frontend and backend development.

    • Metamask

    Metamask is a browser extension that provides a user-friendly wallet interface and enables users to connect to the Ethereum network.

    Integrating Metamask into your dApp allows users to interact with your frontend securely.

    • Material-UI

    Material-UI is a popular library that implements Google’s Material Design guidelines. It provides a set of pre-designed UI components and styles that you can use in your dApp.

    • Semantic UI

    Semantic UI is a framework that provides a set of user interface components with semantic and responsive design.

    It offers a consistent and user-friendly look and feel for dApps.

    When designing the UI for your dApp, consider your project’s specific requirements and user base to choose the most suitable tools and frameworks.

    These tools not only enhance the user experience but also streamline the development process, ensuring your dApp is user-friendly, efficient, and aesthetically pleasing.

    Step #7. Creating the Backend for Your Decentralised Application

    Back-end development plays a pivotal role in bringing the magic to life.

    It’s where the application logic resides, user actions and interactions are managed, and business rules are enforced.

    Building the Application Logic

    The application logic is the heart and soul of your app.

    It defines how the application behaves, processes user input, and communicates with the blockchain.

    Here’s how you build the application logic:

    Server-Side Programming: Choose a server-side programming language such as Node.js, Python, Ruby, or Go.

    This language will power the backend logic and serve as the bridge between the frontend and the blockchain.

    Database Management: Decide on a database system, whether it’s a traditional SQL database or a NoSQL database.

    The database stores essential information such as user data, transaction history, and other pertinent data.

    Smart Contracts Integration: Integrate the smart contracts into your backend logic.

    Your backend should be capable of interacting with the smart contracts on the blockchain.

    This includes sending transactions to change contract states and reading data from the blockchain.

    Business Logic: Define the business rules that govern your dApp.

    For example, specify how users can create, transfer, or manage assets within the dApp, and ensure that these actions comply with your business logic.

    Middleware and APIs: Implement middleware and APIs to connect the frontend and the backend.

    This is the communication layer that handles data exchange between the two components.

    It also provides an interface for the frontend to access backend services.

    Step #8. Integrating the Database

    Effective database integration is a critical component of managing and storing data.

    Let’s explore the essential considerations when choosing a database system and how to manage data storage on the blockchain.

    These decisions are pivotal in creating a robust and efficient dApp.

    Choosing a Database System

    Selecting the appropriate database system for your dApp is a crucial decision, as it directly impacts data storage, retrieval, and the overall performance of your application.

    Here are the key factors to consider:

    • Blockchain as a Database: In many dApps, the blockchain itself serves as the primary database.

      It offers secure, immutable storage of data through smart contracts. Ethereum, for instance, provides the ability to store data directly on the blockchain through contract state variables.

      However, it’s essential to be mindful of gas costs associated with on-chain storage, as they can become expensive.
    • Off-Chain Databases: Sometimes, it’s more efficient to use traditional databases for off-chain data storage.

      These databases can be SQL (e.g., PostgreSQL, MySQL) or NoSQL (e.g., MongoDB, Cassandra).

      Off-chain databases are cost-effective for managing non-critical data that doesn’t need the security of the blockchain.
    • Hybrid Approach: Some dApps use a hybrid approach, combining on-chain and off-chain databases.

      Critical data can be stored on the blockchain for security and transparency, while non-essential data is stored in traditional databases for cost-effectiveness and performance.
    • Data Structure: The type of data your Dapp will manage should influence your database choice.

      If you’re working with highly structured data, an SQL database may be a good fit.

      For semi-structured or unstructured data, NoSQL databases can be more flexible.
    • Scalability: Consider how well your chosen database system can scale to accommodate an increasing number of users and data.

      Scalability is crucial for dApps that aim to grow.
    • Costs: Be aware of the costs associated with your chosen database system.

      On-chain storage on the blockchain incurs gas fees, while off-chain databases have their own hosting and maintenance costs.

    Step #9. Deployment and Hosting for dApp Development

    Deploying your dApp on the blockchain is a defining moment in its development journey.

    It’s the point where your application becomes accessible to users, transactions are executed, and the magic happens.

    Here’s what you need to consider:

    Type Description
    Smart Contract Deployment For many dApps, the core of the application is a set of smart contracts. These contracts are deployed to the blockchain to govern the application’s behavior. Deployment involves sending a transaction to create the contract on the blockchain.
    Gas Costs Gas is the computational work required to execute a transaction or contract on the blockchain. It’s a measure of the resources used. Gas costs can vary based on network activity and the complexity of your contract. Be prepared for potential fluctuations.
    Blockchain Selection Decide on the blockchain platform you will deploy your dApp on. Ethereum is a popular choice, but other platforms like Binance Smart Chain and Polkadot offer alternatives with different features and costs.
    Test Deployment Before deploying to the mainnet (the live, public blockchain), it’s wise to deploy your dApp to a testnet. Testnets are blockchain environments that simulate the mainnet but use test tokens, allowing you to test your application without real assets.

    Choosing a Hosting Service

    Selecting the right hosting service is a critical decision in the journey of deploying your dApp’s frontend.

    The hosting service you choose should provide the infrastructure and reliability needed to ensure a seamless user experience.

    Here are some factors to consider:

    Scalability: Assess the hosting service’s scalability. As your dApp gains popularity, it should be able to handle an increasing number of users and traffic.

    Look for a service that allows easy scaling, such as cloud-based solutions.

    Performance: The speed and performance of your hosted frontend are key to user satisfaction.

    Choose a hosting service with fast content delivery, low latency, and high uptime.

    Security: Security is paramount, especially when dealing with decentralised applications.

    Ensure the hosting service provides robust security features, such as DDoS protection, SSL certificates, and regular security updates.

    Support for Your Tech Stack: Consider the technology stack you’ve used to develop your frontend.

    Ensure the hosting service supports the programming languages, frameworks, and tools you’ve used in development.

    Cost and Pricing Models: Compare the pricing models of hosting services. Some offer pay-as-you-go pricing, while others provide fixed monthly plans.

    Calculate the cost of hosting and ensure it fits within your budget.

    Content Delivery Network (CDN): A CDN is essential for distributing content to users globally, reducing load times. Choose a hosting service that integrates with or provides a CDN.

    Data Backups: Regular data backups are crucial to ensure the safety of your dApp’s content. Select a hosting service with automated backup features.

    Popular hosting services for dApps include Amazon Web Services (AWS), Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Microsoft Azure, and dedicated hosting providers like DigitalOcean and Netlify.

    Setting Up a Domain Name

    A domain name is the web address through which users access your dApp’s frontend.

    It plays a significant role in branding and making your application easily discoverable.

    Here’s are some tips on how you can set up a domain name:

    1. Choose a Domain Registrar: Start by choosing a domain registrar to purchase and manage your domain name.

      Popular registrars include GoDaddy, Namecheap, Wix, and more.

      Ensure that the registrar provides the domain extension you want (e.g., .com, .io, .app).

      Search for Availability: Use the domain registrar’s search function to check the availability of your desired domain name.

      If your preferred domain name is available, you can proceed to register it.
    2. Select Domain Privacy: Consider adding domain privacy protection to shield your personal information from public WHOIS queries.

      This privacy feature is available for a small additional fee.
    3. Complete the Registration: After selecting your domain name and domain privacy settings, complete the registration process by providing the necessary information and payment.
    4. DNS Configuration: Configure the Domain Name System (DNS) settings to point your domain to the IP address of your hosted front end.

      This step is crucial in directing visitors to your dApp.
    5. SSL Certificate: For security and user trust, consider installing an SSL certificate to enable secure, encrypted connections.

      Many hosting services offer free SSL certificates.
    6. Testing and Verification: After setting up the domain name, test its functionality to ensure that it correctly directs users to your dApp’s frontend.
    7. Regular Renewal: Keep track of your domain name’s expiration date and renew it regularly to prevent it from becoming available for registration by others.

      Once your domain name is set up and configured, it will act as the online address for your dApp, making it easily accessible to users.

    Step #10. Publish Your dApp on App Stores or decentralised Platforms

    • Traditional App Stores: If your dApp is available on conventional app stores (e.g., Apple App Store or Google Play), ensure it complies with their guidelines and policies.

      This expands your user base to non-crypto users.
    • decentralised Platforms: Release your dApp on decentralised platforms, such as Ethereum, Binance Smart Chain, or decentralised app stores like IPFS-based platforms.

      This targets users already familiar with blockchain technology.
    • Hybrid Approach: Some developers choose a hybrid approach, releasing on both app stores and decentralised platforms to maximize exposure and reach different user groups.

    How Much Does it Cost to Create a dApp?

    The cost of developing a decentralised app with basic features can be around £10,000 and £50,000.

    A dApp with moderate complexity could cost between £50,000 and £150,000.

    A highly complex dApp may require a budget ranging from £150,000 to £500,000 or more.

    Partner with LAD’s dApp Development Specialists

    Building a decentralised application (dApp) is a dynamic journey that combines innovation, technology, and user-centric design.

    As you’ve learned in this exploration of how to develop a decentralised app, it involves a series of crucial steps, from conceptualization and smart contract creation to front-end development, testing, and deployment.

    To embark on your dApp development journey and tap into the vast possibilities of blockchain technology, reach out to our dApp development experts for your personalised quote today!

    We’re here to transform your ideas into functional, innovative, and user-friendly decentralised applications that stand out in the world of blockchain.

    Don’t miss out on the opportunity to be at the forefront of this exciting revolution – contact us now and let’s build your dApp together.

    Image showing Tuhin Bhatt.
    • Twitter Tuhin Bhatt
    • Facebook Tuhin Bhatt
    • Linkedin Tuhin Bhatt
    Co - Founder

    Tuhin Bhatt is a co-founder of London App Development (LAD), a leading Web and Mobile App Development Company. He helps passionate entrepreneurs build amazing tech products. Tuhin being a peoples man who has a passion to share his technical expertise with clients and other enthusiasts.


    Our Works

    Glance through the many masterpieces that our mobile app developers have crafted using a fine blend of art and technology.

    Contact With Us

    Take The First Step Forward

    Talk to our support team. Give us a call. Drop us an email. Connect socially. Or write to us through the form below.

    Fill Up form our team will get back to you with in 24 hours